Ethereum 101: An Introduction to the World's Second-Largest Cryptocurrency

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Cryptocurrencies have revolutionized the way we think about money and finance. Bitcoin, the world's first cryptocurrency, was launched in 2009 and has since been followed by a myriad of other digital currencies. One such cryptocurrency is Ethereum, which was created in 2015 by Vitalik Buterin. In this article, we will provide an introduction to Ethereum, exploring what it is, how it works, and its benefits and challenges. 

Intro to Ethereum 

Ethereum is a decentralized blockchain platform that enables developers to build and deploy decentralized applications (dApps) and smart contracts. It is powered by its native cryptocurrency, called Ether (ETH). Ethereum was created by Vitalik Buterin. 

Vitalik Buterin is a Russian-Canadian computer programmer and writer who co-founded Ethereum. He is widely recognized as one of the most influential figures in the cryptocurrency industry. Buterin first became involved in the industry as a writer for the Bitcoin Magazine, where he wrote articles about cryptocurrency and its technology.  

He was struck by the limitations of Bitcoin, especially its inability to create complex smart contracts, and started to consider alternative solutions. In 2013, he proposed a new blockchain platform called Ethereum, which aimed to go beyond Bitcoin's functionalities by introducing a new programming language for smart contracts. Buterin pitched the idea to Bitcoin developers, but they were reluctant to adopt it, and so he decided to launch Ethereum as a separate project.  

With the support of a strong development team, Buterin built Ethereum into the most successful blockchain ecosystem in history, bringing smart contracts to the forefront of the industry and opening new possibilities for decentralized applications. 

How does Ethereum work? 

The Ethereum network is a decentralized, blockchain-based platform that enables developers to create and deploy decentralized applications (dApps) and smart contracts. The platform operates through a consensus mechanism called Proof of Stake (PoS), which depends on validators staking their ETH to approve transactions. Ethereum's native cryptocurrency is Ether (ETH), which is used to power transactions and smart contracts. The Ethereum network is not controlled by any central authority or intermediary, making it a truly decentralized and trustless platform. 

The Ethereum blockchain is a distributed ledger that contains a record of all transactions and smart contracts that have been executed on the network. The blockchain is maintained by a network of nodes that verify and validate transactions. When a transaction is initiated, it is broadcast to the network of nodes, who verify the transaction and add it to a block. The block is then added to the blockchain, which is stored on every node in the network. This ensures that every node on the network has a copy of the blockchain and that the network operates as a single source of truth. 

Smart contracts are self-executing contracts that enforce the terms of an agreement automatically. They are stored on the Ethereum blockchain and can be accessed and executed by anyone on the network. Smart contracts enable the creation of decentralized applications (dApps), which are open-source applications that operate independently without central authority. dApps can be used for a variety of purposes, including financial transactions, supply chain management, voting systems, and more. The decentralized nature of dApps means that they are censorship-resistant and trustless, ensuring that no single entity has complete control over the application. 

Intro to smart contracts

Smart contracts are self-executing contracts that automatically enforce the terms of an agreement. They are stored on the Ethereum blockchain and can be accessed and executed by anyone on the network. Smart contracts can be used for a variety of purposes, including financial transactions, supply chain management, and voting systems. 

Dive deeper into smart contracts by reading Smart Contracts: The Ultimate Guide 

What are decentralized applications (dApps)? 

dApps are applications that run on a decentralized blockchain platform, like Ethereum. They are typically open source and operate autonomously without central authority. Examples of dApps include decentralized exchanges, prediction markets, and games. 

Benefits of using Ethereum

  • Ethereum enables developers to build decentralized applications that are censorship-resistant and trustless. Anyone can build on Ethereum by getting started with their developer resources. 
  • It provides a platform for creating new digital assets and implementing novel financial products. 
  • Ethereum has a large and active developer community, which contributes to the platform's growth and innovation. Having a large developer community helps to drive product innovation and, therefore, higher user demand.

What are the challenges facing Ethereum? 

  • Scalability: Ethereum's current infrastructure can only process a limited number of transactions per second, which can lead to congestion and high fees. 
  • Security: While Ethereum's smart contracts are designed to be secure, they are not immune to vulnerabilities and hacks. While blockchain technology has come a long way since the DAO hack, there is always some degree of risk of vulnerability. 
  • Regulatory uncertainty: As with all cryptocurrencies, Ethereum operates in a largely unregulated space, which can create uncertainty and risk for users and developers. 


Ethereum is a powerful and innovative blockchain platform that is driving the development of decentralized applications and smart contracts. While it faces challenges, its potential for growth and adoption is significant, making it an exciting area to watch in the cryptocurrency space. Whether you are a developer, investor, or simply someone interested in the future of finance, Ethereum is certainly worth exploring further. 

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